Friday, July 20, 2012


Today is your last council, take a moment to say a proper goodbye to your group.

1. Take one full minute to list all that comes to mind on what you are grateful for regarding your council experience or list 10 things you are grateful for. **We will need a time keeper for this exercise 
2. How have you benefited from practicing council with your group? What are 2 specific and real life examples that show how council has had a positive impact on you. Please share these 2 stories with your group.
3.What have you learned over the last several weeks regarding your ability to listen? What are ways you struggled with listening, and how have you addressed these struggles with your council experience?
4. What have you learned over the last severalweeks regarding your ability to share and speak to others? What are ways you have struggled with sharing/speaking, and how have you addressed these struggles with your council experience?
5. Please state 2 unique and positive things you can say about each of your group members. Make sure to say their name first then give them your feedback. Reminder we are not giving advice or counseling others here, we are simply giving pure compliments.
Paper Exercise - write your name at the top of your paper.

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Chapter 7 Learning Theories - Council 7, 8, & 9

Chapter 7
Learning Theories
How Do We Learn?

Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s Experiments
Extending Pavlov’s Understanding
Pavlov’s Legacy
Operant Conditioning
Skinner’s Experiments
Extending Skinner’s Understanding
Skinner’s Legacy
Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning
Bandura’s Experiments
Applications of Observational Learning

Learning (also known as, ________________) is a ________________________________ in an organism’s behavior due to ________________.

Council #7
What is your definition of learning? How have you proven to yourself you learned something? Please share an example.

Think about learning in the classroom. In what ways do you learn? Please share an experience that a specific way of learning actually helped you learn academic material.
Think about learning in the “real world.” Please share a real life experience that taught you a major lesson. What was the lesson about? Why was it important to retain/use?
Why is it important to you to retain information? How has this shown up to be useful in your personal relationships, at work, and at school?

How Do We Learn?
In ________________ Conditioning, we learn by ________________________________________________.

In ________________ Conditioning, we pair a ________________________________________________.

In ________________________________, individuals learn through ________________ others who receive rewards and punishments.

The Most Famous 
Classical Conditioning

Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories.  However, it was the ________________________________ who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like ________________.

Let’s Take a Look at 
Classical Conditioning
Pavlov’s Discovery of Classical Conditioning (3:08)

Easier Ways to Remember
 New Terms
“________________” = ________________
“________________” = ________________/innate
“________________” = Learned

“Stimulus” = ________________

“Neutral” = Not causing or reflecting ________________

Pavlov’s Experiments
Famous Classical Conditioning Experiment: Little Albert

Classical Conditioning Group Discussion:

Identify the:
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Conditioned Response (CR)
1)  It is springtime and the pollen from the flowers causes you to sneeze.  Soon you are sneezing every time you see a flower.
2) The sight of food makes you hungry.  Soon every time you go into the kitchen, you feel hungry.
3) Every time you take a shower, someone in the house flushes the toilet causing the water to turn cold and you to become cold.  Now every time you hear a toilet flush, you get cold.

Classical Conditioning Also Affects ________________!- How?
1. Sharp objects             27. Being with drunks
2. Being a passenger in a car         28. Illness or injury to loved one
3. Dead bodies             29. Being self-conscious
4. Suffocating             30. Driving a car
5. Failing a test             31. Meeting authority
6. Looking foolish             32. Mental illness
7. Being a passenger in an airplane     33. Closed places
8. Worms             34. Boating
9. Arguing with parents         35. Spiders
10. Rats and mice             36. Thunderstorms
11. Life after death         37. Not being a success
12. Hypodermic needles         38. God
13. Being criticized         39. Snakes
14. Meeting someone for the first time     40. Cemeteries
15. Roller coasters             41. Speaking before a group
16. Being alone             42. Seeing a fight
17. Making mistakes         43. Death of a loved one
18. Being misunderstood         44. Dark places
19. Death             45. Strange dogs
20. Being in a fight         46. Deep water
21. Crowded places         47. Being with a member of the opposite sex
22. Blood            48. Stinging insects
23. Heights             49. Untimely or early death
24. Being a leader             50. Losing a job
25. Swimming alone         51. Auto accidents
26. Illness

Stimulus ________________
Tendency to respond ________________________________ is called generalization.

Stimulus ________________
Discrimination is the ________________________________ between a conditioned stimulus and ________________ that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

Council #8
Has your definition of learning changed? Now, what do you believe it means to have learned something? Share an example of a lesson you learned, and explain how you believe you have learned to keep this lesson with you today.

What is 1 type of Classical Conditioning that you have experienced? What was the learned behavior (conditioned response)? How did you learn this new behavior (what was the neutral stimulus, ucs and ucr)? How does this behavior affect your emotional state?

Did you ever unlearn this behavior? If so, how did you unlearn it? Please explain.

Share a story of when you experience stimulus generalization

Share a story of when you experience stimulus discrimination

One of the largest contributions to our understanding of Operant Conditioning: 
________________ Operant Chamber
Skinner developed the Operant chamber, or the ________________, to study operant conditioning.
Operant Chamber
The operant chamber, or Skinner box, comes with a bar or key ________________________________________________ like food or water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the ________________.

Shaping: One type of 
Operant Conditioning

________________ the operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the desired target behavior through ________________________________.

Operant Conditioning Involves Reinforcers

Reinforcement: Any event that ________________ the behavior ________________.
Remember that a positive reinforcer ________________ something

Negative reinforcers ________________ something.
Negative Reinforcement Exercise
Identify the aversive (unpleasant) stimulus and the behavior being strengthened by its removal.

1. Taking aspirin to relieve a headache.
2. Hurrying home in the winter to get out of the cold.
3. Giving in to a dog’s begging.
4. Fanning oneself to escape the heat.
5. Leaving a movie theater if the movie is bad.
6. Smoking in order to relieve anxiety.
7. Following prison rules in order to be released from confinement.
8. Feigning a stomachache in order to avoid school.
9. Putting on a car safety belt to stop an irritating buzz.
10. Turning down the volume of a very loud radio.
11. Putting up an umbrella to escape the rain.

Other types of reinforcers include:
Primary & Conditioned Reinforcers
________________ Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing stimulus like ________________.

________________ Reinforcer: A ________________that gets its reinforcing power through association with the primary reinforcer.
Results in ________________.
Justifies ________________________________.
Causes ________________ to reappear in its absence.
Causes ________________ towards the agent.
Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in ____________________________.

In children, ________________________________________________ the occurrence of these behaviors.

Operant Conditioning Applied To Your Life:

Identify a behavior that you want to either increase or decrease in your life.
How will you measure your progress on this behavior?
What are some positive reinforcers you can provide yourself to change the behavior? On what schedule will you administer these reinforcers?
How will you monitor and record your progress toward changing the behavior?

Observational Learning
Learning by ________________
Higher animals, especially humans, learn through ________________________________ others.

The monkey on the right ________________ the monkey on the left in touching the pictures in a certain order to obtain a reward.
Mirror Neurons
Neuroscientists discovered ________________ in the brains of animals and humans that are active during observational learning. 
When a monkey ________________ such as grasping, holding or tearing, these neurons fire. But they also fire when the ________________ another monkey performing the same task.
Imitation Onset
Learning by observation begins early in life. This ________________ the adult on TV in pulling a toy apart.

Bandura's Experiments
Bandura's________________ (1961) indicated that individuals (children) learn through imitating others who receive ________________________________.

Applications of Observational Learning
Unfortunately, Bandura’s studies show that antisocial models (family, neighborhood or TV) may have ________________________________.

Positive Observational Learning
Fortunately, ________________________________ models may have prosocial effects.
Television and Observational Learning
Gentile et al., (2004) shows that children in elementary school who are exposed to violent television, videos, and video games express ________________ aggression.

Modeling Violence
Research shows that viewing media violence ________________________________ of aggression.

Council #9
Think of a time when you were punished by a parent, friend, or significant other. Share this experience with your group, and express what your thoughts were during and after the punishment.

How did you respond to being punished? What actions did you have towards your punisher.

We discussed Operant Conditioning, where learning occurs from the consequences of your behavior. Think of a time you learned an important lesson (family, friends, work, or academic), and you were positive reinforced (rewarded). What was the positive reinforcement? Discuss what you learned, and if/how the positive reinforcement (increased your likelihood of applying your lesson in the future).

Think of a time when you experienced negative reinforcement (your behavior is reinforced by removing a negative event). What was the negative reinforcement? Share this experience with your group.

Think of a time you learned through observing others (modeling). Share this experience with your group.

Lastly, when interacting with people/children, what type learning techniques would you use to help someone learn. Explain your answer.

Video Clip
Do Video Games Teach People to Be Violent? (4:30)

Monday, July 2, 2012

Chapter 12 Personality Theory - Council 4, 5, & 6

Personality Psychology 1, Chapter 12



How would you describe what a personality consist of? What external/internal factors contributes to the development of a personality?

Is personality fixed or does it change with time? Explain your answer by providing personal examples of your personality fixations/changes.
How has your culture /society impacted 2 of your personality traits. Explain.

How has your family impacted 3 of your personality traits? Explain.

How has media impacted 2 of your personality traits? Explain.

How have you personally contributed to your own personality traits? Please list 3 traits you taught yourself to have and explain how you taught these traits to yourself.

Personality test (“5 Factor Model Test”):


Psychoanalytic Perspective

In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from ____________________. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely ____________________.

Psychodynamic Perspective

Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the ____________________________________________________________.

Exploring the Unconscious

A reservoir (____________________) of ______________________________, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (____________________) in order to __________ unconscious.

Dream Analysis

Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting __________and __________ contents of dreams.


The process of __________ (chain of __________) leads to painful, embarrassing unconscious __________. Once these memories are retrieved and released (treatment: ____________________) the patient feels better.

Model of Mind

Personality Structure

Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our ____________________ and ____________________.

Id, Ego and Superego

The ___________________ strives to satisfy basic ____________________ drives, operating on the __________ principle, demanding __________ gratification.

Personality Development

Freud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into ____________________. During these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called ____________________.

Psychosexual Stages


____________________ desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.

A girl’s desire for her father is called the ____________________.


Children cope with threatening feelings by ________________________________________. Through this process of identification, their ____________________________________________________________.

Defense Mechanisms

The ego’s protective methods of ____________________________________________________________.

Council #5

FREUD’S Psychoanalytic theory

What is your behavior mainly guided by when you are with family (your id, ego or superego)? Please share 1 example to support the analysis of yourself.

What is your behavior mainly guided by when you are at school/work (your id, ego or superego)? Please share 1 example to support the analysis of yourself.

What is your behavior mainly guided by when you are with friends (your id, ego or superego)? Please share 1 example to support the analysis of yourself.
Think about a close friend/family member/significant other. What is their behavior mainly guided by (their id, ego or superego)? How do you two interact considering the roles the id, ego and superego have on each of your behaviors?

Pick 1-2 stages you think your personality is most influenced by the most (oral, anal, phallic, latency, or genital)? What stage would Freud say you were fixated on? Explain your answer.

What 2 defense mechanisms do you know you use often? Please share an example of each.

What do you think about Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory? What do you like and dislike about his theory? Explain.

The Neo-Freudians

Like Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions. However, these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with an ____________________ during growth and strives for __________ and __________.

The Neo-Freudians

Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. Horney, __________ Freud’s assumption that women have ____________________ and suffer from “__________”

The Neo-Freudians

__________ believed in the ____________________, which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the __________ being a ____________________.

Assessing Unconscious Processes

Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind’s perspective would require a psychological instrument (__________) that would reveal the ____________________ mind.


Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the __________________________________________________.

____________________ Inkblot Test

The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify ____________________ by __________ their __________ of the blots.

Projective Tests: Criticisms

Critics argue that projective tests lack both __________ (consistency of results) and __________ (predicting what it is supposed to).

Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective

Personality ______________________________________ and is not fixed in childhood.

Freud ______________________________________, which may be as powerful as parental influence.

Gender identity may develop ___________________ of age.

Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective

There may be other reasons for dreams besides ___________________.

___________________ can be explained on the basis of ___________________ of verbal choices.

Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. ___________________ has decreased, but psychological disorders have not.

Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective

Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on the ___________________of painful experiences into the ___________________ mind.

Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective

The scientific merits of Freud’s theory have been criticized. Psychoanalysis is ___________________. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice, which are the ______________________________________.

Humanistic Perspective

By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent with _________________________________________________________.

Self-Actualizing Person

Maslow proposed that we as individuals are ______________________________________. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of _________________________________________________________.

Person-Centered Perspective

Carl Rogers also believed in an individual's ___________________ tendencies. He said that ______________________________________ is an ___________________ of others despite their failings.

Assessing the Self

All of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in an answer to the question, “___________________” refers to ___________________.

Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective

Humanistic psychology has a pervasive impact on counseling, education, child-rearing, and management with its emphasis on ______________________________________, empathy, and the thought that people are basically ______________________________________.

Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective

Concepts in humanistic psychology are ___________________ and lack scientific basis.

The individualism encouraged can lead to self-indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints.

Humanistic psychology fails to appreciate the reality of our ___________________. It lacks adequate balance between ________________________________.

The Trait Perspective

An individual’s unique constellation of ___________________ and consistent ways of behaving ___________________ his or her personality.

Biology and Personality

Assessing Traits

___________________ are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once.


The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (___________________) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders.

MMPI Test Profile

The Big Five Factors

Today’s trait researchers believe that earlier trait dimensions, such as Eysencks’ personality dimensions, fail to tell the whole story. So, an expanded range (___________________) of traits does a better job of assessment.

Social-Cognitive Perspective

___________________ (1986, 2001, 2005) believes that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context.

Personal Control

___________________ refers to the perception that chance or ___________________ beyond our personal control determine our fate.

Learned Helplessness

When unable to avoid repeated adverse events an animal or human ___________________.

Optimism vs. Pessimism

An optimistic or pessimistic attributional style is ______________________________________.

Positive Psychology and Humanistic Psychology

Positive psychology, such as humanistic psychology, attempts to foster ___________________. Positive psychology, in addition, seeks ___________________, positive character, and positive ___________________.

Exploring the Self

Research on the self has a long history because the ______________________________________is a critical part of our personality.

Benefits of Self-Esteem

___________________ argued that a successful life results from a healthy ___________________.

Self-Serving Bias

We accept responsibility for good deeds and successes more than for bad deeds and failures. ___________________ is fragile and egotistic whereas ___________________ is less fragile and less dependent on external evaluation.


Are you an extrovert or an introvert? What are 2 things you dislike about being an extrovert/introvert?
What are 3 great things about being an extrovert or introvert based on your personal experience? How have you used being an extrovert/introvert to your advantage in the “real world”?
What is your understanding of self actualization? Do you want to be self actualized? If so, what steps would you need to take now to help you move into the process of self actualization?
Talk about one person that you know and believe is self actualized. Describe their personality. Explain why you believe they are self actualized.
Personality test (“5 Factor Model Test”):

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Chapter 2 The Biology of the Mind

Neuroscience and Behavior

Chapter 2 Lecture
Student Learning Outcome Chapter 2: 
Explain the major divisions of the nervous system and their basic functions.

The Nervous System
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System

The Brain
Older Brain Structures
The Cerebral Cortex

Neural Communication
The body’s information system is built from ____________________________________________ called neurons.

Neural Communication
Neurobiologists and other investigators understand that humans and animals operate similarly when processing information.

A nerve cell, or a neuron, __________________________________________.

Parts of a Neuron
Cell Body: ____________________________ of the neuron.

__________________: _________ extensions at the cell body. Receive messages from other neurons.

_________: __________________ of a neuron, covered with ___________________________ to insulate and __________________ messages through neurons.

Terminal Branches of axon: Branched endings of an axon that __________________ to other neurons.

Action Potential
A __________________. A brief __________________ that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane.

Action Potential Properties
__________________: A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potential’s ___________________________.

_________ of an action potential _________ the same throughout the length of the axon.

Synapse [SIN-aps] __________________ the __________________ of the sending neuron and the ___________________________ of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the ___________________________.

Neurotransmitters (_________) released from the sending neuron_________ across the synapse and _________ to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to ____________________________________.

Divisions of the Nervous System
The Nervous System
Nervous System: Consists of ___________________________. It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system.

Central Nervous System (CNS): the ___________________________.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): ____________________________________ that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the _________.

Kinds of Neurons
_________ Neurons carry incoming information from the __________________ to the _________.
_________ Neurons carry outgoing information from the _________ to ___________________________.

__________________ connect the two neurons.

The Nerves
Nerves consist of neural “_________” containing many _________. They are part of the __________________ system and connect muscles, glands, and sense organs to the __________________ system.
Example: If you are in a car accident and have to get your _________ amputated, the type of nervous system damage you have suffered is to __________________ system.

Peripheral Nervous System Consists of:
Somatic Nervous System: The _________ division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the ___________________________. Helps people react consciously to environmental changes.

Autonomic Nervous System: __________________ part of the PNS that controls the __________________. This system works __________________ and without voluntary input. An example of autonomic control is movement of food through the _________ tract during sleep.

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Consists of:
Sympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that _________ the body, mobilizing its energy in _________situations.

Parasympathetic Nervous System: Division of the ANS that _________ the body, _________ its energy.

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Sympathetic NS “Arouses”

Parasympathetic NS “Calms”
(rest and digest)

Central Nervous System
The Brain: 
Older Brain Structures
The _________ is the _________ part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull. It is responsible for __________________ functions.

The _________ [muh-DUL-uh] is the ___________________________ that controls heartbeat and breathing.

The Thalamus [THAL-uh-muss] is the brain’s __________________, located on __________________. It __________________ to the sensory areas in the cortex and __________________ to the cerebellum and medulla.

The “__________________” attached to the __________________. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance.

Electroencephalogram (EEG)
An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

PET Scan

MRI Scan

The Limbic System
The Limbic System is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the _____________________________________________, associated with _______________________________________________________________.

It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and __________________.

The Amygdala [ah-MIG-dah-la] consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters linked to the _____________________________________________.

The Hypothalamus lies below (hypo) the thalamus.  It directs several __________________ like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions. It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

The Cerebral Cortex
The intricate ____________________________________ that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s __________________and ____________________________________.

Structure of the Cortex
Each brain hemisphere is divided into _________ that are separated by prominent fissures. These lobes are the
__________________ (forehead; speaking, muscle movements, planning, judgment);
__________________ [primary sensory cortex] (top to rear head; receives _________ input for touch and body position);
__________________ (back head; receives information from the _________ fields);
__________________ (lies roughly above the ears; _________ information).

Functions of the Cortex
The __________________ is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control _________ movements.
The __________________ (in the parietal lobe) receives information from ___________________________.

DVD and Video Clips
Planning, Life Goals, and the Frontal Lobe (6:25)
Frontal Lobes and Behavior: The Story of Phineas Gage (13:42)

Visual Function
The functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex is active as the subject looks at faces.

Auditory Function
The functional MRI scan shows the auditory cortex is active in patients who hallucinate.

The Brain’s Plasticity
The brain is sculpted by our _________ but also by our _________.

_________ refers to the brain’s ability to __________________ after some types of __________________.

Our Divided Brain
Our brain is divided into two hemispheres.

The _________ hemisphere processes ________________________________. In the 1960s, it was termed as the dominant brain.

The _________ hemisphere is dominant for ___________________________.

In normal people, the two hemispheres work together, are connected, and share information through the __________________.

Splitting the Brain
A procedure in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.

Split Brain Patients
With the corpus callosum _________, objects (apple) presented in the right visual field __________________. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field _________.

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Chapter 15 Social Psychology - Council 2 & 3

Social Psychology Psychology 1,
Chapter 15

Focuses in Social Psychology Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations

Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by______________________________________________

Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations A teacher may wonder whether a child’s hostility reflects an aggressive personality (_______________________attribution) or is a reaction to stress or abuse _______________________ (attribution).

Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to _____________________________________________________________________ the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error.

Role Playing Affects Attitudes Zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that ___________________________________________________________________ Every culture has:

Social roles – Culturally determined guidelines of _______________ that is expected of people, many different _________

Social norms – __________________ provided by every culture for judging acceptable and unacceptable behavior (spoken and unspoken rules).

Social Influence The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are molded by social influence.

Conformity & Obedience Behavior is contagious, modeled by one followed by another. We follow behavior of others to ______________________

Other behaviors may be an expression of compliance (obedience) toward authority.

Group Pressure &; Conformity An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.

Council 2

1. List 2 social roles you play out either in your family or work. Discuss how 1 of these impacts your behavior. Share how this social role may influence your overall personality.

2. Think about a time when you felt pressure to conform to a social role or norm. What was the role or norm that was expected of you? What kind of pressure did you feel (how was it expressed)? How did you respond to it?

3. Think about a time when you realized that the image you had of yourself changed. What changed about how you saw yourself, and what made it change? How did your attitude toward yourself change afterward? What about your attitude toward others?

4. What are your thoughts, do people conform on a regular/irregular basis? Are we mindless zombies? Explain your answer. Deindividuation The loss of ______________________________________ in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Groupthink A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for ______________ in a decision-making group _______________________________ appraisal of alternatives.

Prejudice Simply called “prejudgment,” a prejudice is an ___________________________________________ toward a group and its members.

Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups. Reign of Prejudice Prejudice works at the conscious and [more at] the unconscious level. Therefore, prejudice is more like a ______________________________________________________________________

How Prejudiced are People?

Over the duration of time many prejudices against interracial marriage, gender, homosexuality, and minorities have decreased. Racial &; Gender Prejudice Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist. Race Nine out of ten white respondents were slow when responding to words like “peace” or “paradise” when they saw a black individual’s photo compared to a white individual’s photo (Hugenberg & Bodenhausen, 2003). Gender Most women still live in more poverty than men. About 100,000,000 women are missing in the world. There is a preference for male children in China and India, even with sex-selected abortion outlawed. Social Roots of Prejudice

Why does prejudice arise?

Social Inequality Prejudice develops when people have money, power, and prestige, and _______________________. _______________________________ increases prejudice. Us and

Them Ingroup: People with whom one shares a _____________________________. Outgroup:
Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup.

Ingroup Bias: The tendency to ________________________________ Emotional Roots of Prejudice Prejudice provides an outlet for ____________________] by providing someone to ___________.
After 9/11 many people lashed out against innocent Arab-Americans.

Council #3
1. Think of a time you were treated based on a stereotype someone had of your group (this can be based on your ethnicity, gender, sexuality, religion). Explain what was said to you and how you responded.

2. How did you feel about what was said?. How did you respond? How has this situation impacted your view on the world, others, or yourself?

3. Share a story of when you have actively, peacefully, and maturely combated a stereotype you experienced. Describe what was said and your approach in resolving the issue. If this question does not apply, imagine and state how you would have responded to maturely to question #1 and #2.

4. Lets challenge society to be more accepting by modeling accepting and loving behavior. You in? Describe one way you can challenge one of your own stereotypes/prejudice.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology - Council 1

Play the name game (name + 2 favorite people in the world).

Tell your group members your name, major, career goals.

What are 3 things you wish people could know about you when they first meet you but wont know about you until they get to know you?
Discuss 4 things you would love to do if money and time were available to you. Please describe each.

What is your earliest memory? Paint a picture of this memory using words by describing what you saw, heard, smelled, tasted, etc. Describe what happened.
State 2 things you enjoyed about council today.

Obtain the email/number of each of your council members

The required textbook
for this course is
David Myers’
Eighth Edition
(©2010, Worth)
(bundled in the bookstore with the Scientific American Reader)
ISBN-10: 1429216352
ISBN-13: 978-1429216357

Learn the ____________ who developed theories (ideas) in Psychology.

Learn theories well (understand each concept).

Learn ____________ within theories.

Research the advantages and disadvantages of theories to develop your critical thinking.

Review your notes and/or book ____________ before every class!

Write down ____________ learned during lecture, ask your ____________ define words for your or look them up, and practice using them immediately.

Student Learning Outcome, Chapter 1: 

Explain the steps of the scientific method and how it helps distinguish science from _________________.

Lecture Overview
What is Psychology?

Psychology’s Roots

Contemporary Psychology

Why Do Psychology?
What About Intuition and Common Sense?

The Scientific Attitude

Critical Thinking

How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?
The Scientific Method




Psychology’s Roots
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

Aristotle, a naturalist and philosopher, theorized about psychology’s concepts. He suggested that the _______________________________ and that ____________________________.

Psychological Science is Born
________ and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. This work is considered the birth of psychology as we know it today.

Psychological Science is Born
American philosopher ___________ wrote an important psychology textbook in 1890.
__________, James’s student, became the APA’s first female president

Psychological Science is Born
_________________, an Austrian physician, and his followers emphasized the importance of the _________________ and its effects on human ___________.

Psychological Science is Born
Psychology originated in many disciplines and countries. It was, until the 19____, defined as the ________________________________.

Psychological Science Develops

__________________________________ emphasized the study of _________ behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology.

Psychological Science Develops
Humanistic Psychology

__________________________________ emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for __________________________________.

Talk to a partner
How would you define psychology?

Psychology Today
We define psychology today as the __________________________________ (what we do) and _________________ (inner thoughts and feelings).


Psychology’s Big Question
____________ (Biology) versus _____________ (Environment)

Today’s psychologists explore the nature-nurture issue by asking questions such as:

Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis
chart in book

Psychology’s Subfields: Research
chart in book

Psychology’s Subfields: Research
chart in book

Psychology’s Subfields: Applied
chart in book

Psychology’s Subfields: Applied
chart in book

Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy.

Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients.

Write down 1-3 question on a piece of paper that is related to your interest or curiosity in Psychology.
Please do not ask “What is Psychology?”

Why Do Psychology?
The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people ____________________________

The Scientific Attitude
Critical Thinking

Critical thinking does not accept arguments and _________________.

It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, _________________ and assesses conclusions.

Critical Thinking
How can you engage in critical thinking and be a skeptical consumer of information when you are reading a news report or listening to a conversation?

Ask questions!
How do they know that?

What is this person’s _______?

Is the conclusion based on anecdote and gut feelings, or on evidence?

Does the evidence _______ a cause-effect conclusion?

What ___________ explanations are possible?

How Do Psychologists Ask & Answer Questions?
Psychologists, like all scientists, use the _____________________ construct theories that _______, summarize and simplify ______________. The scientific method helps facilitate critical thinking.

What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?

A _______ is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and _______ behavior or events.

For example, ____________________________ to depression.

A _______ is a testable statement that describes the ____________________________ or more _______. Note: the hypothesis below is measurable!

People with ___________________________________ more depressed.

Research Observations
Research would require us to administer tests of self-esteem and depression. Individuals who score_______ on a self-esteem test and _______ on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis.


Survey, Naturalistic Observation

Correlation coefficient

Correlation does not equal causation!

Formal Experiment (a.k.a. Experiment)
control group, experimental group

Descriptive Methods of Research
Case Study

A technique for ascertaining the _____________________, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a ______________, random sample of people.

Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording the behavior of ______________and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation.

Correlation Coefficient is a ______________ of the relationship between______________.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

Spring 2013 Syllabus

                                                Psychology 1 – Introduction to Psychology
Course Syllabus
3 Units

Instructor: Joanna Aguirre, M.S. Psy., M.F.T.
Spring 2013


Section # 7856   Wednesday     3:10 p.m. -  6: 20 p.m.     Room: TBA

Office hours:    Wednesday   6: 20 p.m. - 6: 50 p.m.      Room: TBA

ELAC Official Course Description/Objective:
“This course explores the scientific principles of psychology, and applies scientific research to aid the student in understanding the development of personality and the achievement of a fulfilling life style.  Insight is acquired into emotional patterns, mental health and illness, human relationships, the functioning of intelligence, learning, problem solving, motivation, and the physiological basis of behavior.” (ELAC General Catalog).

General Education Student Learning Objective: "The student will be able to apply critical thinking methods to the ways that individuals or societies behave or have behaved, in a particular situation, event, or series of events, within their own or among other societies."                                                
Student Learning Objectives:
SLO 1:            Explain the steps of the scientific method and how it helps distinguish science from pseudoscience.
SLO 2:            Explain the major divisions of the nervous system and their basic functions.
SLO 3:              Assess the strengths and weaknesses of Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning.
SLO 4:            Identify and evaluate the major theories of personality and demonstrate how each has played a role in your life.

Text:                        Exploring Psychology by David Myers Eighth Edition ©2011
      ISBN-10: 1-4292-1635-2
      ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-1635-7

Pop quizzes:             4 unwrinkled scantrons FORM NO. 882-E and a #2 pencil

Daily:                        Printed class notes (obtained on ACE)
                                 1 larger Blue Book

Having a college education assists us in developing and maintaining critical thinking skills. The college experience should nurture, encourage, and support you as a student to exercise critical thinking as you apply academic knowledge into practice. 

As the instructor, I will encourage critical thinking based discussions around the self, family, work, politics, neighborhood and worldly issues as they relate to Psychology.  I encourage the class to be a safe space to discuss your life experiences as they connect to Psychological theories. 

The expectation placed on students is to share their knowledge and experiences, participate in group activities (i.e. in class assignments and council), discussions, brainstorming, and to proactively study the material before and after coming to class. In other words, I will clarify and teach psychological theory, and you will teach the class about your knowledge and experiences as you integrate your life and worldly experience with ideas learned in this Psychology course. 

I expect students to be respectful toward one another, as well as to the process of council.  More information about council will be provided on ACE.

This class focuses on communal learning, group projects and a great deal of social interaction. The goal is to help you develop a strong academic community as you learn useful theories in Psychology. As your Instructor, I hope to facilitate a deeper understanding of the world, society, culture, family, and yourself. The class will consist of several activities that focus on use of internet, small group discussions, class discussion and interactive exercises.  I believe learning can be a pleasurable experience, and aim at creating a class culture that encourages this positivity. Expect to have tons of fun while learning about Psychology, yourself and your fellow students.
Please be advised. I am a mandated reporter when teaching to students under the age of 18. Therefore, if I hear about or suspect a student who may be currently experiencing abuse (be it emotional, physical, neglect, or witnessing domestic violence), I am legally required to make a report to the Department of Children and Family Services. 
Blog: Please print your class notes, and bring to class weekly. They are available at

Keeping in touch with me: I encourage you to drop by during my office hours if you have any questions about the readings or other assignments. The best way to contact me is through my email address listed at the beginning of this syllabus. I check my email frequently, and will get back to you as soon as possible. I don not check email late at night, so if you email me at 10 pm or midnight, I will not respond until sometime the next day. When you send me emails, be sure to include your ENTIRE NAME, the course name (e.g. ELAC Psych 1 @ 3 p.m.) in the subject heading—I will not receive them unless this is in the subject heading. Always include this if you want me to respond.
Assignments & Exams (refer to course schedule for due dates):
Pop quizzes: There will be four non-cumulative pop quizzes consisting of approximately 10-20 questions (these questions may consist of a mix of multiple choice, fill in the blank, and/or short essay questions).  Each quiz is worth 10 points. The quiz will be given at the beginning of class. PLEASE ARRIVE EARLY! You will have 15 minutes to complete each quiz. You Instructor will usually give you an advanced notice before a pop quiz is given.

Make-up Quizzes: No make-up quizzes will be given for unexcused absences. Excused absences will require appropriate documentation that clearly indicates the reason(s) you were unable to take the quiz at the scheduled time (e.g., note from emergency room, car accident report). You must inform your Instructor about missing a quiz on the date of, the day before or the day after the quiz. Documentation needs to include your doctor’s contact information, which will be used to verify your absence. Make-up quizzes will be different than the missed quiz and must be taken the following class session; unless the instructor has predetermined a different day and time for the make up quiz. Failure to follow these procedures will result in a “0” on the quiz.
Psychology Video Project: This will be a group project consisting of your council group members. The presentation should total to 6-12 minutes.  Each group will create a video production regarding a Psychological Theory or 3 - 5 psychological ideas, which will be assigned to your group by your instructor.    Students will be creative and develop a skit, dance, rap, or role-play situation and demonstrate “mastery” as they demonstrate full competence of the psychological concept via their video production. 

The goal here is to:
A) Clearly define the Psychological theory and/or idea as the book does (use proper APA citation and spelling).
B) Teach it to your audience as if they have never learnt this idea.
C) Provide an accurate, clear, creative and entertaining example of the idea. Please ensure that we do not perpetuate racist, classist, sexist, and/pr heterosexist ideas. This video should be consciousness raising - we will perpetuate positive psychology!

In addition, after the video is shown in class, each group member may be asked to speak about discussing strengths and weaknesses of their production and demonstrate full and accurate understanding of their chosen concept. 

Be as creative and professional as possible!  It is recommended that each file be saved to a flash drive, a windows media file, DVD, or equivalent. Please provide me with a DVD with your groups Video Project saved onto it on the day your group presents. Each group should test their video ahead of time to make sure it plays and has sound.  All group members should arrive on time and ready to present!

Psychology Video Projects will be graded on of 0 (low) – 5 (high) for each areas totaling up to 50 points::
      1. quality of video
      2. effort
      3. teamwork/group cohesion
      4. creativity
      5. subject mastery & delivery
      6. completeness
      7. accuracy of concepts
      8.  consciousness raising
      9. staying within time
      10. students self grading

Council Group: There will be 10 council group meetings, and a blue book assignment, totaling to 50 points. There is no possible way to make-up a council experience. If you were absent on the day of council, you will not earn points for that missed council.  However, if you are absent on the day a council is held, you will be allowed up to one excused absence with proper medical documentation. You must provide proper excused absence documentation is turned in to your instructor within a week of missed class session. Failure to follow these procedures will result in a “0” on this assignment.

Total breakdown of points:
40 points          4 non-cumulative quizzes
5 points            TBA assignment
5 points            TBA assignment           
50 points          Video Project
50 points           Council participation
= 150 points

A = 89-100%            B = 77-88%            C = 65-76%            D = 53-64%            F = 52% and lower
Attendance: Students are expected to attend class and be on time.  If a student misses 2 or more class, he/she is risking being dropped from the class by the instructor. Students must speak with Instructor if issues with attendance and timeliness become an issue.

ELAC’s Official Policy on Academic Honesty
Students are expected to refrain from engaging in the following behaviors:
1. Using, receiving, or providing unauthorized information during tests or on any written assignments.
2. Changing answers on assignments after work has been graded.
3. Using unauthorized electronic devices, such as cell phones, PDAs, electronic dictionaries, IPODs, etc.
4. Having another student take an examination for you or taking an examination for another student. Photo identification may be required at the first examination.
5. Plagiarizing or presenting someone else’s work as your own.
6. Forging or altering registration documents, grades, or add permits.
7. Bribing or attempting to bribe an instructor or other college official for grade consideration or other special favors.
8. Violating any other standard that an instructor identifies as cheating in that particular course or subject area.

When there is evidence of academic dishonesty, the instructor may issue the student a zero or “F” on that particular assignment or test. The instructor may also initiate student discipline. Any student concerned about the implementation of this policy should review the College Catalog Student Information, where he/she will find references to the Student Grievance Procedure and relevant Board Rules.

Student Resources at ELAC
A major part of your ability to do well and succeed in this class, and in all your classes at East Los Angeles College, is to be aware of and make use of all the resources available to you as students. The ELAC website ( is a great place to get information on all the support, academic counseling, financial assistance, student health center, and other help available to you. More information on all of these programs is available on the ELAC website.

Course Schedule:

Chapter            Topic                                                            Assignment Due
                       Thinking Critically With
Psychological Science

15                      Social Psychology                                    Quiz #1

2                        The Biology of Mind                                 Quiz #2
12                      Personality                                                Quiz #3

7                        Learning                                                    Quiz #4
10                      Motivation (Focus on sexuality)             Group Video Project due:

3             Consciousness                                                     Final – in class assignment                                                                                                       Bring Blue book
                                                                                             Thursday May 29, 2013
                                                                                             3:10 p.m. – 5:10 p.m.
Final Exam Schedule:

*No class: Spring Break March 29, 2013 – April 5, 2013

*Please be advised; syllabi changes may be made during the span of this course.  Students will be notified during class, at which point it is the student’s responsibility to make changes to his/her syllabi.
**I look forward to facilitate critical thought, mindfulness, and positivity! J